Centre for Information Rights

About us

The CIR is an interdisciplinary research and knowledge exchange centre based in the Department of Law in the Faculty of Law, Crime and Justice. CIR recognises that the term 'information rights' spans a wide range of live issues, including: machine learning, artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, the 'Internet of Things', information sharing, freedom of information (FOI), privacy, data protection, cyberlaw, intellectual property, e-disclosure and Government open data. It therefore draws its membership from Digital Technologies and Education as well as Criminology and Forensics, and integrates the Winchester Cybercrime and Cybersecurity Network.

The CIR aims to:

The CIR is pleased to endorse the syllabus of Act Now's Data Protection Practitioner Certificate. The syllabus is focussed on providing practitioners with a practical understanding of data protection and knowledge of how the law may change in the future. NB: this endorsement does not imply any guaranteed progression onto University of Winchester programmes, nor does the certificate give you any advanced standing for University of Winchester Programmes.

2023 News

On 7 Dec. 2023, CIR hosted its annual lecture. This year we welcomed John Clarke, a lawyer with a rich legal heritage. John talked about his life and career and one landmark case in particular. Read the full story.

Virtual Reality Can Help Emergency Services Navigate The Complexities Of Real-life Crises, an article in The Conversation by Forensic Science expert Selina Robinson and criminologist Brandon May.

2022 news

On 1 August 2022, CIR Convener Dr Emma Nottingham appeared on BBC 2 Newsnight, speaking about the Archie Battersbee case. Watch the programme.

The implications of family use of technology for children's privacy 

Information Rights expertise at Winchester: a child's gazing face surrounded by social media icons

Today's children are 'Generation Tagged' - born into a world where social media sharing and data exploitation have become the norm. However, a backlash is brewing: children increasingly take legal action against their parents for sharing images of their offspring on social media without their consent. In a recent interview for Glamour magazine, Dr Emma Nottingham calls for better regulation around 'sharenting'.

For her latest topical blog post on the LSE website, Sharenting in a socially distanced world, CIR Director Dr Emma Nottingham has teamed up with former CIR Director Marion Oswald and Claire Bessant from Northumbria University to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on family use of technology. With families actively encouraged to share images of their personal life during lockdown, are COVID-19 response measures altering public attitudes and cultures towards the sharing of data and information about children? What are the possible future implications for children’s privacy?

Find out more about our Generation Tagged research

For more blog posts, see below.

Contact CIR

Dr Emma Nottingham, CIR Co-Convener

Christine Rinik, CIR Co-Convener

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What we do


Members of the Centre are involved in networks, committees and organisations focussed on Information Rights issues such as the British and Irish Law and Education Technology Association (BILETA), British Educational Research Association, Socio-Legal Studies Association (SLSA), and they regularly present on Information Rights matters. The Centre is looking to build greater connections in areas of growth and potential, including Artificial Intelligence, human-computer interaction and digital rights.

Members are currently working with:

  • Defenddigitalme, a charity working to protect children’s rights in the digital world 
  • Law firm Womble Bond Dickinson, former sponsors of the Trust, Risk, Information and the Law conference (TRILcon, see below).  
  • The Institute of Medical Ethics
  • The Transparency Project 
  • The Clinical Ethics Advisory Committee at Univ. Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust

Research Projects

Generation Tagged/Children in the Media projects

Former Centre Director Marion Oswald instigated a major participatory research project titled Children in the Media, which explores the long-term effects on young people of having been depicted in the broadcast media as children. Currently led by Child and Family Law specialist Dr Emma Nottingham under the overarching title 'Generation Tagged', it had broadened its scope to also include a focus on parental posting of children’s lives on social media ('sharenting').

Find out more about the Children in the Media/Generation Tagged Project

Right2object project

This interdisciplinary project considers the pervasive nature of data collection about the individual underage learner through digital means within the schooling context.

Girl sitting at kitchen table in front of a computer

Since the global outbreak of Covid-19, learners rely more than ever on digital systems to be educated. Education is a basic human right (Articles 28 and 29 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child) yet while UNICEF states that the purpose of education is ‘the preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society’, we question whether the commercialised power structure of learner data processing for the purpose of formal schooling will indeed instil taught freedom.

In addition, children today are born into a society in which privacy intrusion appears to be a social norm and where digital platforms have always featured within their school learning experience. We seek to directly and effectively educate underage learners to be aware of their legal right to opt out, and why they might want to exercise this.

Funded by Human Data Interaction (Learning Skills and Social Justice Theme), this project is a collaboration between Dr Caroline Stockman (Education Studies), Dr Emma Nottingham (Centre for Information Rights) and Professor Maria Burke (Faculty of Business and Digital Technologies).

Find out more about the Right2Object project

Recent projects

Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms within Criminal Justice

This project explored the potential impact of introducing machine learning algorithmic support tools into criminal justice decision-making. Led by Marion Oswald, Christine Rinik and Centre research student Petros Terzis.

Highlight CIR blog posts


Covid-19 and the implications for children's privacy of family use of technology 

For her topical blog post on the LSE website, CIR Director Dr Emma Nottingham teamed up with former CIR Director Marion Oswald and Claire Bessant from Northumbria University to discuss the impact of COVID-19 on family use of technology. With families actively encouraged to share images of their personal life during lockdown, are COVID-19 response measures altering public attitudes and cultures towards the sharing of data and information about children? What are the possible future implications for children’s privacy? Read the blog Sharenting in a socially distanced world.

For more blog posts, please see Dr Nottingham's academic profile


July 2019: We need to protect children who appear on social media: 'Generation Tagged' and the YouTube 'Kidfluencer'


Dec 2018: Women, Equality and the Legal Profession


April 2017: Algorithmic tools - grasping reason's full potential or 'suppression of what we know'? Sherlock Holmes vs Father Brown

January 2017: The funny thing about science: five minutes with Timandra Harkness.

The Trust, Risk, Information and the Law Conference (TRILCon)

Until 2019, the CIR organised the annual high-profile Trust, Risk, Information and the Law Conference (TRILCon), which has featured such high-profile keynote speakers as John McNamara, Senior Inventor and Innovation Centre Technologist Lead at IBM, Renate Samson, Chief Executive of Big Brother Watch, and Professor Sir David Omand GCB, former Director of GCHQ.


The 2019 conference took place on 1 May and was convened by Dr Emma Nottingham, Senior Lecturer in Child and Family Law. This year's theme was 'Caring for critically ill children in the glare of digital media'.

TRILCon 2018

TRILCon 2018 was held on Wednesday 25 April. The overall theme was: 'Public Law, Politics and the Constitution: a new battleground between the law and technology?'

We welcomed keynote speakers Michael Barton, Chief Constable of Durham Constabulary, and Jamie Bartlett, Director of the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media for Demos in conjunction with the University of Sussex and author of several books, including Radicals and The Dark Net.

TRILCon 2017

Watch videos of TRILCon 2017

Meet the team


Dr Emma Nottingham (Co-Convener)

Christine Rinik (Co-Convener)




Visiting Fellows and Professors

Research students

Petros Terzis: 'Who, then, in law is my neighbour: privacy, tort law and the design of intelligent systems'

Supervisors: Dr Emma Nottingham; Dr Ben Sanders

Petros' interdisciplinary research mainly focusses on liability issues arising from the ‘actions’ undertaken by systems of Artificial Intelligence. He has presented his research findings at national and international conferences including, Symposium on Data Ethics 2019 at the Centre for Translational studies University of Sydney, WeRobot 2019 at the University of Miami, the Socio-Legal Studies Association Annual Conference 2019 and the British and Irish Law and Education Technology Association Annual Conference 2019.

Petros worked as a Research Associate on the 2018-19 Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms within Criminal Justice Project - find out more. Petros' latest publication, 'Shaping the State of machine learning algorithms within law enforcement'  co-authored with Marion Oswald and Christine Rinik, is a workshop report exploring the implications of machine learning in a police context.

Petros has also received grant funding from HumanDdata Interaction for a research project exploring 'Judgment, responsibility, and expectations of the onlife reality', alongside Dr Emma Nottingham and Dr Martina Hutton. 

Petros is a member of the Research Board of the European Law Observatory on New Technologies (ELON) and a Research Assistant at Legal Utopia Inc

In 2019 he was awarded the Outstanding Commitment to Research Award by the Director of PGR studies at University of Winchester. 

John Northam: 'An examination of the correlation between informational data privacy expectations and specific social contexts'

Supervisors: Prof. Maria Burke; Dr Emma Nottingham

Supuni Perera: 'Mafia Women and Artificial Intelligence - What You See is Not What You Get: a diagnostic enquiry of a lost femininity in the judicial reasoning. What does the technological modern court hold?'

Supervisors: Dr Vicenzo Scalia, Professor Tim Hall, Dr Emma Nottingham

Supuni has extensive experience of collaborative and peer reviewed legal research projects. She has presented research findings during conferences at Harvard University (US), University of Wroclaw (PL) and the University of Southampton (UK). She has also served on the organising committees for academic conferences hosted by the University of Southampton, and as Editor-in-chief of the University of Southampton Law Review. Supuni's recent publications include a contribution to Women's Legal Landmarks: Celebrating 100 Years of Women and Law in the UK and Ireland (Hart Publishing, 2018). Supuni also has experience of teaching law to undergraduates and international postgraduates.

Supuni works at Womble Bond Dickinson (UK) LLP in the commercial law team, with direct experience of legal practice and support in the UK, Italy and Sri Lanka. She commenced a training contract with them in September 2020 and qualified as a solicitor in 2022.